How can you prove evolutionary biology?

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Main topic: Science
Short answer:

There is a great deal of scientific documentation regarding biological evolution through:

  • Fossils examination.
  • Comparing the anatomy, embryogenesis, and DNA of living organisms.
  • Direct empirical observations.

The study of how organisms have changed through time, with an emphasis on where different species originated and how they descended from one another, is called evolutionary biology.

Human evolution representation CC BY: Wikimedia

There is extensively recorded scientific evidence for Evolutionary biology.

One can find clues to the evolution of biology in fossils[edit]

Fossils provide a glimpse into the past as proof that evolution has happened. Paleontologists utilize fossils to understand evolutionary mechanisms.

Consider the horse Fossils covering more than 50 million years indicate how the horse evolved. The oldest horse fossils reveal that the first horses were barely 0.4 m tall, or about the size of a fox, and had four long toes.

Other evidence indicates they resided in forested marshlands, where they presumably ate soft leaves. Over time, the environment got drier, and grasslands progressively replaced the wetlands. Later fossils reveal that horses altered as well.

  • They got taller, which would assist them in noticing predators when they dined in thick grasses. Eventually, they reached a height of around 1.6 m.
  • They developed a single big toe that ultimately formed a hoof. This would let them run rapidly and evade predators.
  • Their molars (back teeth) got longer. Their teeth also begin getting thick enamel. This would enable them to chew difficult grasses and seeds without wearing out their teeth.[1]

There is evidence of biological evolution in comparative anatomy[edit]

Comparative anatomy is the study of how the structures of different species are similar and how they are different. Forms can be either homologous or analogous if they look like other body parts. Both show that evolution happened.

  • Homologous structures: Homologous structures are shared by related species because of common ancestry. These structures' offspring may have different goals. Mammals have the same fundamental limb bones, even if they serve distinct roles. All animals have this bone pattern from a common ancestor.
  • Analogous structures: Analogous structures in various creatures are similar. They developed to execute the same task, not because they were related. Birds and bats use the same wings. Both types of animals gained wings in separate eras. The wings' bones empirical data demonstrate this theory.[2]

One can find the steps of biological evolution through comparative embryology[edit]

Comparative embryology studies how embryos of different species are alike and how they are different. If embryos look alike, it's likely because they have the same ancestors.

For example, all vertebrate embryos' gill slits and tails are the same. Except for fish, all embryos lose their gill slits when they grow up, and some also lose their tails. In humans, the tail is just the bone at the end.

So, similarities between organisms when they are young may not be there when they are adults. That is the reason for studying young offspring of a species.[3]

There are vestigial structures and organs in animals that hint towards how evolution is a continuous process[edit]

Vestigial structures are things like the human tailbone. Evolution has shrunk them because they no longer need the structures.

The appendix is another example of a structure that is no longer needed. It is a tiny piece of an organ that used to be much bigger. In a long-ago ancestor, it helped break down food, but it doesn't do anything in a modern person's body.[4]

It is possible to observe evolution through molecular biology[edit]

Darwin could only compare the structure and organs of living organisms. Scientists are now able to study all organisms down to their DNA.

Similar DNA sequences prove that all living things evolved from the same ancestor. A cladogram is used for the study.

The cladogram is a branching diagram that shows how organisms are related. Each branch shows a new trait that makes one group of organisms different from the rest. The cladogram shows how people and apes are related based on their DNA.[5]

Darwin's study of biogeography revealed how evolution works[edit]

The study of how and why organisms live where they do is called biogeography. It's proof that evolution happened.

Evolution theories are best supported by island biogeography. Darwin examined Galápagos finches. One South American bird brought all the finches to the islands. The islands had no birds until the finches first came. It became several finch species suited to diverse foods.

One species develops into numerous to fill ecological niches.[6]

It is possible to see and document evolution through direct observation[edit]

Specific populations, such as those of microorganisms and certain insects, evolve over relatively short periods and can be observed firsthand as this process occurs.

The appearance of germs resistant to antibiotics and insects immune to pesticides are both examples of evolution in the modern world. The mosquito population became immune to the effects of the insecticide over time.[7]


  1. "Fossil evidence - Understanding Evolution". 2021-04-26. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  2. "Comparitive Anatomy Study Guide | Inspirit". Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  3. "How Does Embryology Provide Evidence for Evolution?". Sciencing. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  4. "Vestigial Organs". VEDANTU. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  5. "Evidence for Evolution: Molecular Biology". SparkNotes. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  6. "2.7 How do we know evolution has occurred? Biogeography. – The Evolution and Biology of Sex". Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  7. "Evolution - The evidence for evolution". Retrieved 2022-11-03.